Map of China

For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences. But in the 19th and early 20th centuries, China was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping gradually introduced market-oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision-making. Output quadrupled by 2000. Political controls remain tight while economic controls continue to be relaxed.

North Korea and South Korea dispute the name of the sea bordered by China, Japan, North Korea, Russia and South Korea. While Japan, as the map depicts, calls it the Sea of Japan, South Korea and North Korea maintain that its name is the East Sea and East Sea of Korea, respectively.